The production of fuel and beverage alcohol represents the largest deployment of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in industrial production by fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one the most studied microorganisms and is considered a model organism. It is also the first sequenced eukaryotic organism and is known for its ease of genetic manipulation. While Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ideal model organism that is widely used for industrial production of a number of products, there are a number of other so-called non-conventional yeasts that have also been deployed by industry for the production of proteins, pharmaceuticals, organic acids, chemicals and chemical intermediates, carotenoids, beverages, other food and feed products as well as vitamins. There are also several other promising genera of non-conventional yeast that have been the topic of much research that are being developed for commercial use. The applications of these new yeasts at biorefineries for the fermentation production of new products for value addition and valorization of byproducts and waste products are very promising.


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